“Ever since men began to modify their lives by using technology, they have found themselves in a series of technological traps most of which might be attributed to ignorance “, that’s is to say that new technology creates new criminal opportunities but few new types of crime.

Below is the outline of the study ;

1. (a) What is Cyber Crime?

(b) Basic Facts

2. Categories of Cyber Crimes

3. Variants of Cyber Crimes

4 Cyber Crimes in various sectors;

(a) In Banking Sector

(b) In E-commerce sector

© In social media sector

5. Causes of cyber crimes…

6. Safety Tips to cyber crimes

7. Recommended movie and conclusion…


In recent times, our society is increasingly relying on the internet and other information technology tools to engage in personal communication and conduct business activities among other several benefits. While these developments allow for enormous gain in productivity, efficiency and communication, they also create a loophole which may totally destroy an organization.

CYBER CRIME refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of crime or it may be the target.

It mainly consist of unauthorized access to computer systems, data alterations, data destruction and theft of intellectual property etc.

All these can be done against an individual, an organization or properties…


1. Most tricks used in cyber crimes are psychological. They tend to use people’s weakness against them. They propose mouth watering offers. They make it seem you stand to gain a lot. Some might go to the extent of giving you first.

2. Majority of cyber crimes are centered on fraud and phishing.

3. Social networks and e-commerce sites are major targets.


Generally, cyber crime may be divided into two categories:

1. Crimes that affects computer networks and devices directly. Examples are malicious code, computing viruses, malware etc.

2. Crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices, the primary target of which is independent of the computer networks or device. Examples include Cyber Stalking, Fraud and identity theft, phishing scams etc.


Hacking: “Hacking is a crime which includes cracking systems and gaining unauthorized access to data stored in them”

Cyber Squatting: “This is the act of registering a famous domain name and then selling it in the future.”

Phishing: phishing is one of the many frauds in the internet trying to fool people into parting with their money. It refers to the receipt of unsolicited emails by customer of financial institutions, requesting then to enter their username, password and other personal information, to access their account for some reasons. The fraudster then has access to the customer’s online bank account and to the funds contained in that account.

Cyber Stalking : Stalking generally involves harassing or threatening behavior.

Internet Time Theft : this is the usage by an unauthorized persons of the internet hours paid for by another person

Web Jacking : this occurs when someone forcefully takes control of a website by cracking the password.

Salami Attacks: this is used in commission of financial crimes. The key here is to make the alteration so insignificant in a single case that it would go completely unnoticed. eg an employee inserts a program into bank sever that deducts a small amount from every customer account.

Click Jacking : this is a form of cyber attack where the hacker uses invisible layer over the embedded web content…

Cyber crimes in the Banking Sector

1. Phishing

2. Theft of bank cards

3. Salami Attacks

Cyber Crimes in the E commerce sector

1. Software piracy

2. Sales fraud and forgery

3. Data and airtime theft from service providers

Cyber Crimes in the educational sector

1. Cyber Plagiarism

2. Cyber Pornography

Cyber Crimes in the social media sector

1. Fake social network pages appealing for charity support

2. Social Hijacking

3. Cyber Stalking, harassment…

Coming down to the E commerce sector, I think 80% of Nigerians who make use of windows operating system are actually guilty of piracy… The question is, how many of us paid for the operating system we are using? It simply means we are using cracked version of windows operating system… If Bill Gates sues us eehh, na better money ooh…


The following are some of the identified causes of cyber crime;

a. Unemployment is one of the major causes of Cyber crime

in Nigeria. It is a known fact that over 20 million graduates

in the country do not have gainful employment. This has automatically increased the rate at which they take part in criminal activities for their survival.

b. Quest for Wealth is another cause of cyber crime in Nigeria. Youths of nowadays are very greedy, they are not ready to start small hence they strive to level up with their rich counterparts by engaging in cyber crimes.

c. Lack of strong Cyber Crime Laws also encourages the perpetrators to commit more crime knowing that they can always go uncaught. There is need for our government to come up with stronger laws and be able to enforce such laws so that criminals will not go unpunished.

d. Incompetent security on personal computers. Some personal computers do not have proper or competent security controls, it is prone to criminal activities hence the information on it can be stolen.


1. Avoid pirated software and never disclose your Personal

Identification Number (PIN), bank account and email access code to unknown persons.

2. Always ignore any e-mail requiring your financial information . Do not send sensitive information in an email since its security cannot be guaranteed.

3.Use strong passwords that are difficult to guess and employ a combination of characters (upper case and lowercase letters), numbers and symbols.

4.Avoid inputting your information in a pop-up. If you

have interest in any offer you see on a pop up, it is always safer to go directly to the website of the retailer

4. Carefully select the sites you visit. Do not visit an untrusted site. Avoid visiting a site by clicking on a link you find in your email, found on a Facebook page, or on an ADVERTISEMENT…


As the internet technology grows, so does the threat of cyber crimes. “Bytes are replacing bullets in the real world”… In recent times, we must protect ourselves from cyber crimes. Anti virus software, firewalls and security patches are just the beginning. Never open suspicious emails and only navigate to trusted sites…

Thank you everyone…

I recommend the TV series, Mr Elliot…



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Madubuike Sunday Chukwuebuka

Madubuike Sunday Chukwuebuka

I am Software Engineer who develops Web applications using laravel. I like being versatile and not tied to a particular stack. I am currently open for hire.